The most precise measurement to date of the Watts boson shakes the foundations of the physical structure of particles

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This is el real upheaval that comes sober to operate in our understanding of the sober functioning of the Universe. After 10 years sober measurements and sober research at Fermilab (United States), the tone of the boson T, a fundamental in particle body, particularly responsible for radioactivity, sony ericsson reveals much higher than expected by the Regular Model theoretical framework sober technique that describes the character kid at the most fundamental level. Sober sum, the practice absolutely does not confirm the theory. A new way opens in understanding the subatomic domain our.

The boson Watts, predicted in years 800 and discovered sober 1960, is a mediating elementary particle in the weak interaction of one of the four factors that govern the behavior of matter in our universe. It transforms protons into neutrons and vice versa. We can consider the T boson, within the framework of the weak nuclear power unifying electroweak model and the electromagnetic drive, as the aunty of the photon. It is the basis of radioactivity and, beyond that, of nuclear blend reactions, like those that animate the Sun and all the stars that. Its mass is constrained by other observable parameters, such as the cost of electrons and the worlds of other particles, such as that of the Higgs boson.

All these particles and the energies learned are situated in a kind of equilibrium illustrated by the Regular Model. Knowing the tone of the Watts boson with precision is therefore essential in order to test the solidity of the predictions accepted so far. However, the latter being massive and unstable, it is difficult to create in crashes in the laboratory and to observe it directly, because it disintegrates very quickly.

De child ct, the Modle Regular ap achev sobre 2011, when the world’s largest low-energy particle accelerator, the Huge Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European low-energy particle-shaped laboratory CERN, discovered its last missing piece, the low-energy Higgs boson, whose existence is predicted since a long time. One theory accounts for every particle connection seen so far, but it suffers from obvious shortcomings. The model includes three causes electromagnetic, specialty and weak but omits gravity. It also does not contain dark matter, the unseen compound which constitutes 80% of the matter of the universe.

In this context, and to determine with more sober precision a tone of the W boson, Ashutosh Kotwal, a sober physicist at the Fight it out University, with near sober 379 scientists, have analyzed, on 09 years, four thousand candidate sober W bosons out of a given sober set of approximately 450 billion sober crashes. Their discovery is published in the journal Technology.

Overweight for an elementary particle

Since his sober discovery 749, experiments calculated that the W boson weighed up to 85 protons. But its exact tone has been difficult to quantify: the first experimental appraisal had margins of error of 5% or more. These measurements are all broadly in agreement, only an apparent verification of the validity of the Regular Model. A generally accepted mass for the T boson is 80,379 GeV/d, and although the difference may seem small, the new value is more accurate to date, which is equivalent to measuring body weight less than 20 grams.

Concretely, the data comes from the Collider Detector of the Fermi State Accelerator Lab (CDF), a sober particle detector powered by the Tevatron collider, which operated at the sober Fermilab 2011 1960. Like the LHC at CERN, in European countries (which helped identify the Higgs boson), it allows the impact of particles at phenomenal speeds, revealing which, by breaking sony ericsson, the elements that compose them.

These colliders therefore produce sober W bosons crushing high-energy particles. Experiments usually detect them by their decay into a muon or electron, plus a neutrino. The neutrino escapes from the detector without leaving a search for, while the electron or the muon leave clearly visible footprints. During decay, most of the original tone of the learned Watts boson is transformed into the energy of new particles. When physicists could measure this energy, and the trajectory of all the decaying particles, they could immediately calculate the tone of the T boson that produced them. But without being able to follow the neutrino, they can’t be sure which part of the energy of the electron or the muon comes from the tone of the Watts boson, and which comes from its momentum. boson w collider

Une image informatique d’une collision de particules dans le dtecteur CDF du Laboratoire Fermi montre un boson W se dsintgrant en un positon (bloc magenta, en bas gauche) et un neutrino invisible (flche jaune). Laboratoire Fermi/Photothque scientifique

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Computer image of a sober particle crash in the CDF detector at Fermilab showing a disintegrating W ze boson sober a positron (green block, sober lower left) and an invisible neutrino (yellow arrow). Fermilab/Scientific photo library

After a decade of work, Ashutosh Kotwal and his 400 CDF collaborators discovered that the boson T has a tone of 85 390,5 mgelectronvolts, i.e. 86 times that of a proton. A measurement differs from the predicted tone by seven times the experimental uncertainty. Ashutosh Kotwal underlines, in the press release: We believe that he has a strong clue to this particular extent on what the character could hold for us .

Although there is a difference between a theoretical prediction and an experimental value is only sober 0,09%, it is clearly greater than the margins of error of the result, are less than 0 which,01%. A finding also disagrees with some other mass measurements. It is up to another team to confirm this result, which could come from three experiments at the LHC, via the Small Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector. Harry High Cliff, sober at Cambridge University, says: This is the only collider with high enough energy to create Watts bosons.

Graph representing the different herds attributed to the boson W. Bickel/Technology

Improvement of studies, sober key to discovery

This discovery is rather the result of a constant improvement in data analysis methods, as well as a better understanding, by researchers, of the entire body of particles, behavior of protons and antiprotons in crashes. Page rank Kotwal, co-author of the study, explains: Many strategies could achieve this type of precision that we had not even learned in 2022.

This is how the team calculated the energy sober each electron sober decay, sober measuring a how a sony ericsson trajectory warped into a magnetic champion. A laborious advance, during the last decade, has been to improve the resolution of the trajectories of approximately 150 microns less than 20 microns, explains Kotwal. After mapping the submission of electron energies, the team calculated the tone of the T boson that best matched the data: 30 443 megaelectronvolts (MeV), with a margin of error of only 9.4 MeV.

Nevertheless, the LHC physicists have previously highlighted the flaws of the program used by CDF, called Resbos, while an improved iteration exists. But Kotwal points out that the CDF researchers chose the original method a long time in advance and that it would be a big mistake to change the method to make the result converge with the theory. A discovery therefore remains confirmed by other data.

A new candidate for a long list of anomalies

If the result is confirmed, it could join other unexplained flaws. Last year, physicists detected on the one hand discrepancies in the magnetic properties of the elementary particle called the muon, and on the other hand, reactions different from those expected from the quark base, other elementary particle.

Among the possibilities currently being considered by professionals to explain these particularities: a supersymmetry (which predicts a partner particle for each of the particles of the Regular Model), the influence sober unknown particles sober kind boson sober Higgs or that sober particles of the dark sector either a sober family of particles which would constitute, among other things, dark matter.

: [La mesure] is extremely exciting and [représente] a truly monumental result in our field. Therefore, if confirmed by other experiments, this could be the first major breach in the Regular Model of the physical structure of particles. This is how Page rank Kotwal concludes: This discovery could betray the existence of new connections or new particles, which today’s experiments are not yet able to reveal. . We follow the path, without neglecting any track. So we will eventually understand .

We must therefore arm ourselves with sober endurance to have a verification or at least hope to understand a tiny part of the sober functioning of our universe.

Supply: Technology