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The immune system, our natural defense strategy, is susceptible to disruption under the influence of various factors. It can either react excessively to certain exogenous compounds (in the case of an allergy), or develop self intolerance and attack healthy cells (autoimmune diseases). While most are relatively easy to diagnose, autoimmune diseases are however very difficult to treat, as immune responses vary from individual to individual. Hoping to come up with potential better treatments, a new large-scale study has discovered that our immune cells have unique genetic fingerprints, implicated in the risk of developing autoimmune diseases. These unique markers could develop tailor-made treatments allow, would thus be more effective which.
Normally, a certain degree of autoimmunity exists in everyone sober us, in particular in order to allow sober lymphocytes to target our cells as well as the molecules they secrete and contain. However, since the body does not reject its own components (self-tolerance), it develops two control mechanisms that educate the immune system. The first is main and allows the elimination of Big T and M lymphocytes which would represent too high a risk of autoreactivity. The second mechanism is peripheral and eliminates autoactive testosterone-level lymphocytes that could have escaped the main regulator. Sober regulation of autoimmunity is flawed or simply missing in some people. Autoractivity then becomes uncontrollable and leads to autoimmune diseases. In these specific cases, macrophages and dendritic cells can also express self-antigens, attacking healthy tissue.
It is also essential to note that immune system responses may vary from individual to individual. In patients with autoimmune diseases (multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, etc.), it happens that the effectiveness of a treatment differs greatly between individuals. Due to the complexity of our immune system and its great variability from one individual to another, we do not currently understand why a treatment works well in some people but not in others , explains in a press release Paul Powell, primary author of the study and director of cellular sciences at the Garvan Institute for Medical Research and deputy director of the University of New -South Wales, Questionnaire.
Sometimes hereditary and affecting around 5 to 8% of the world’s human population, autoimmune diseases are today still incurable and require mainly symptomatic treatment. A new study, published in the journal Technology, demonstrates the opinion that genetics is implicates at the cellular level in the risk of immune disease. The markers discovered in the immune cells should then probably lead to personalized treatments adapted to each affected person. It will also improve understanding of the variability in responses to autoimmune disease treatments.
A feat made probable by the single-cell sequencing
The study, carried out at the Garvan Medical Research Institute and the University of New Wales in Sud, aimed to identify and prioritize new therapeutic targets (fingerprints) expressed by specific immune cell types in each individual. This is notably the largest study shedding light on the link between pathogenic genes and specific forms of immune cells.
To discover the famous imprints, australian researchers isolated and individually analyzed sober genes more than one million sober immune cells sober different fates, problems sober near sober 1000 healthy subjects. This feat was made possible thanks to a new simple single-cell sequencing technology, making it possible to trace the subtle changes occurring at the level of each cell. Unlike bulk sequencing in the sample, genomic sequencing of individual cells allows the analysis and identification of functional variants of each type of immune cell.
De plus, most rare genetic diseases are comparable to a major car incident in the body it’s usually easy to locate where they sony ericsson occur in the gnome, says Alex Hewitt, primary co-author on the study and clinician-scientist at the Menzies Institute for Clinical Research on the University of Tasmania. But immune diseases are rather more like traffic jams, where genetic changes hamper traffic are more difficult to identify specifically which. This study therefore helped us identify the origin of these blockages .
The Scientists have discovered that specific genes are linked to immune cells and autoimmune pathologies. We can then deduce that the genetic profile of an individual can be used to design treatments adapted to the immune system.
Before sober find the treatment that suits them best, patients with sober auto diseases -immune usually have to try sober many different treatments. According to the authors of the Australian study, some of these drugs are only effective in 15% of patients. We now have a way to link treatment response to an individual’s immune genetics and potentially screen for these % of patients even before a clinician administers treatment, says Seyhan Yazar, co-first author of study and primary researcher Garvan. Understanding which types of sober cells are laying which disease will also allow sober to develop better treatments quickly.
In order to apply the results to their research, the scientists are currently conducting a trial in patients with low Crohn’s disease, to identify which treatments work for which people and to link any recognized immune fingerprints. They also plan to expand trials for other autoimmune diseases.