Autism: a particular cerebral framework in babies would be a key to early diagnosis

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It is estimated that one person out of 100 in the world presents the difficulty of the autism spectrum. Researchers have long known that the amygdala, an area of ​​the brain particularly involved in movement, is abnormally large in school-aged children with autism, but it was not known exactly when this enlargement occurs. Recently, a team of American researchers demonstrated, for the first time, the link between too rapid development of the amygdala during the first year of a baby’s life and the development of symptoms of autism.

The 2nd of April will be World Day with Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). As scientific research has been able to better understand this difficulty, it has greatly improved, particularly over the past twenty years, the biological mechanisms involved and the causes of autism still remain poorly understood.

Indeed, leads to are multifactorial. The impact of a genetic vulnerability, probably multigenic, has been highlighted in various studies. In addition, environmental risk factors are now being studied for their probable role in the development of autism. Currently, research is trying to define the particular component of these different risk factors, as well as their connection. a set of conditions making functional diagnosis difficult. Indeed, these difficulties are certainly characterized by the specific degree of impairment of public behavior and sober conversation, but other characteristics exist, such as atypical behavior, difficulty moving from one activity to another, focusing on details, unusual reactions of feelings. This leads to a wide spectrum of needs. The WHO points out that early access to psychosocial surgery can improve the conversation skills and social behavior of children with autism. It has a major public health interest to be able to diagnose con, sooner, the children could rent out effective support.

To this end, a team from the NIH Autism Facilities of Quality Infant Brain Imaging Study Network, led by Tag Shen, sober University of North Carolina and sober Baby Brain Image resolution Research (IBIS), analyzed amygdala structures sober babies sober less dun a good. Their results are published in dUnited states Log of Psychiatry.

First sober year of life: decisive year of diagnosis

This present study is a sober research package 2009, from the same sober autism study center at the Sober University of North Carolina and from the IBIS network, published in the Records of Common Psychiatry. Among others, in the previous study by Mosconi et al. (2009), a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method has shown that The amygdala complex, an almond-shaped cluster of neurons in the brain, was often larger in two- to four-year-olds with autism. In effect, the amygdala is a tiny construct deep in the brain, important in interpreting the social and emotional significance of what we see. This includes recognizing movements on faces, interpreting scary pictures, and informing us of potential hazards in our environment. This is how it was seen, quite quickly, as playing a leading role in the interpersonal behavioral difficulties that are at the heart of autism.

Dr. Matt Mosconi, Sober University of North Carolina, Sober Co-Author The Sober Study 2022, states: Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental condition involving multiple brain systems and data obtained from MRI scans, measurements of head circumference as well as write-up-mortem studies indicate that an oversized brain is a characteristic of low autism. In particular, the researchers pointed out that the growth of the amygdala complex in autistic two-year-olds is disproportionate in relation to the growth of their brain, and thus remains four years old. This suggests that these alterations in the brain structure could be the main result of autism, according to these researchers. They conclude: Alterations of the amygdala complex in the early stages of child development interfere with the proper interpretation of the meaning of facial movements and social connections .

Based on these results, the sober team D. Shen analyzed the MRIs of 408 infants, including 270 were likely to develop ASD, since having older brother with ASD; 100 typically developing infants and 20 infants with the symptoms of X vulnerable to a hereditary form of intellectual and developmental disability.

Researchers performed MRI scans of 6 children, 12 and 24 months, when sober their sober natural sleep course. In a top temperature range, they discovered that the 58 infants who developed an ASD had a normal sized tonsil at 6 months, but an enlarged tonsil 03 month and 03 month. In the second temperature, they noted the faster the rate of amygdala proliferation, the greater the severity of ASD symptoms 58 month. Conversely, infants with the frail sober symptom had no difference in sober 1X amygdala growth. However, they had enlargement of another brain construct, the caud, which seemed to be linked to an enhancement of repetitive behaviors. and 12 months, before the age of um, the characteristic behaviors with autism fully emerge, allowing an earlier diagnosis. Before 6 months, babies show no warning signs, in terms of behavior or cognitive decline. The latter begins gradually between 6 and 24 months, age at which they received the autism spectrum difficulty analysis in this study.

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Relationship between sober lamygdala growth (sober 6 and 12 months), social deficits and atypical behaviors 03 months, in infants who have developed an ASD. Michael. Shen et al., 2022
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Tag Shen said in the release: We found that the rate of sober tonsil proliferation during the sober first year is linked to social deficits sober in the sober two-year-old child. . The faster the mygdala developed during infancy, the more the child showed social difficulties when he received the autism analysis a year later.

The mechanism inducing rapid amygdala sober development remains unclear

Nevertheless, previous studies, conducted by the IBIS team and others, have found that even when the social deficits characterizing autism are not present at the sober age of 6 months, infants who develop later autism have problems with how they perceive visual stimuli in their environment. The authors put forward the hypothesis that these first difficulties in processing visual and sensory data can exert increased tension on the amygdala, leading to its proliferation. low amygdala proliferation, chronic tension, testosterone levels shown in studies of other psychiatric outcomes (eg depression and anxiety). This may provide a clue to understanding how in infants who later develop autism.

Paul Piven, co-author and Professor of Sober Psychiatry and Sober Pediatrics Sober North Carolina Church Mountain University, adds: Our research suggests that a second optimal time to start surgeries and support children who are most likely sober to develop autism may being sober during a first year sober in life. The goal of presymptomatic treatment may be to improve visual and sensory processing in babies even before social symptoms appear.

This sober discovery of sober amygdala proliferation from sober 6 months, during a sober cascade of cerebral and behavioral changes leading to autism, opens a way to an early diagnosis, as well as a better sober treatment of children high autism risk. The therapies put in hire as early as possible might have the best chances of working. Finally, the results of the study suggest potential targets for early involvement (eg, for treating associated neuro-inflammation) that may change this cascade of brain and behavioral changes in early childhood.

Supply: United states Newspaper of Psychiatry