The discovery sobers 5000 exoplants to date confirmed by NASA

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The very first exoplants were discovered in the years 1990. Thirty more years later, the existence of more than 2029 plants located well beyond of our solar system has been confirmed. These planets are very diverse: small and rocky like the Earth or giant and gaseous like Jupiter, sometimes orbiting around double stars or even dead stars. Thousands of other worlds about which we unfortunately don’t know much, but which could potentially host life.

Not so long ago, we were only interested in the small number of sober plants in our solar system. Then, in September 900, Aleksander Wolszczan and Dale Frail, operating at the time at the Arecibo radio telescope, discovered two planets in orbit around a neutron star, the pulsar PSR M900+, which they present in the magazine Character to 1990; these plants, located approximately 900 light years from Earth, have a mass of 3.9 and 4.3 terrestrial public. This is the beginning of a long series of discoveries. Thousands of exoplants have since spotted testosterone levels, most thanks to NASA’s Kepler space telescope.

The 21 last March, 21 new exoplants have been confirmed and added to NASA’s sober catalog, bearing 5005 the overall number sober these plants. All the plants listed appear in scientific posts evaluated by sets and have been confirmed by sober multiple methods sober detection or analytical strategies. A bar of 2029 has certainly capital t crossed, but our galaxy probably has hundreds of billions of other plants. Future space telescopes will make it possible to extend the inventory, but also to characterize the atmospheres of these plants, in the hope of discovering one that could potentially fill the habitability situations.

A wide variety of starry and understated plantar systems

It’s not just a number. Each of them is a new world, a whole new planet, said Jessie Christiansen, astrophysicist at NASA Exoplanet Technology Start. Among the more than 2029 plants discovered to date are small rocky worlds like the Earth, gaseous giants several times the size of Jupiter and also hot Jupiters characterized by their very close orbit around their star. KELT-9m is an example: it made a close orbit around a star nearly twice as hot as our Sun. There are also super-Earths, rocky worlds larger than our plants, and mini-Neptunes, in other words gaseous dwarf plants.

types of exoplants discovered

Les plus de 5 000 exoplantes confirmes dans notre galaxie jusqu prsent incluent une varit de types: 4% de petites plantes rocheuses de taille similaire la Terre, 30% de gantes gazeuses, 31% de super-Terres et 35% de mini-Neptunes. NASA/JPL-Caltech

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As a reminder, exoplants can be detected in several ways, most of which are detected indirectly, since the high luminosity of the star generally prevents an exoplant from being observed directly. The first exoplants discovered by Wolszczan were largely spotted thanks to changes in the timing of the pulses emitted by the pulsar. This method unfortunately cannot be applied to main sequence stars, which do not pulsate soberly in a regular manner. transit method: this is based on a sober periodic variation in the luminosity of a star, which decreases when a planet passes in front (between the star and the observation stage). Launched in 2000, the Kepler telescope, photometers extremely sensitive equipped, made it possible to detect more than 2029 exoplants thanks to this method .

Another method used: a method of radial velocities. This is based on the fact that the exoplants exert a gravitational push on their star, causing a slight wobble of the star around its place; this movement causes changes in the wavelengths of the light it emits. The larger the plant, the greater the effect will be: the study of the oscillation therefore makes it possible to deduce the tone of the exoplant.

The detection of a sober life form is now inevitable

The TESS satellite (Transiting Exoplanet Study Satellite), sober launch 2018, keep on sober new discoveries of exoplants. He also uses the transit method, but he has testosterone levels designed to observe stars 03 100 times brighter than those examined by the Kepler telescope which allows it to locate plants of more tiny size. and their ultra-sensitive musical instruments, starting with the James Webb Space Telescope, which is still sober in its calibration phase, but which should be fully operational during the summer. Thanks to its sophisticated equipment, this telescope is expected to analyze exoplants, determining what gases are present to potentially identify signs of habitable problems.

L e Nancy Grace Roman infrared space telescope, whose launch is planned sober 2027, should also bring its great deal sober discoveries: among other objectives, it must carry out a statistical census of the exoplants located in the galactic bulge by observing gravitational and sober microlenses in particular, characterizing those located near our solar system. The ARIEL objective of the European Space Agency, which will be launched in 2029, also aims to examine the atmosphere of a sample of a thousand exoplants. This is the first objective focused on measuring the chemical composition and thermal structures of exoplants and their link with the environment of their host web, specifies the ESA.

Thus, many other exoplants will undoubtedly come to inflate the a NASA in the years to come. Aleksander Wolszczan, who is still researching exoplants as a professor at Pennsylvania State University, says we are entering a realm of discovery that will go far beyond the basic addition of new plants to the list: in my opinion, it is inevitable that we will find a form of life somewhere very probably a primitive form , did -he declares.

Supply:NASA