A study explains why men tend to overestimate their intelligence


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Specialists call this the “male arrogance effect”, which opposes female humility. Although cognitive psychology has repeatedly demonstrated that men and women are equal in terms of measured intelligence, gender differences in self-estimated intelligence are widely observed: unlike women, men always tend to overestimate their intelligence. A study has attempted to explore the sober personality factors that could explain this phenomenon. There is a sober cognitive psychology consensus that sober men and women do not differ in general intelligence; gender differences appear only in specific cognitive abilities, such as verbal, visual or spatial tasks. However, several psychological studies have shown that men often consider themselves more intelligent (overestimate their intelligence quotient), regardless of their age, ethnic origin and cultural background. The women remain, for their part, modest more a lot. intellectual can influence our choices: this can in particular have an influence on motivation, success and school choices. Students who feel less intellectually capable than their sets are less motivated. This is particularly true in fields under-represented by female stereotypes such as science, technology, engineering and mathematics, underline the authors of the study, directed by David Reilly, psychologist at Griffith University, Australia. Their objective was therefore sober to determine what can cause such self-esteem basketball between the sexes that.

A self-assessment subject to several cognitive biases

Sober psychology and sober intelligence researchers are unequivocal: men and women do not differ in their real IQ, explains Reilly in The Discussion. Women were historically considered less intelligent sober because of their sober size because their brains are smaller than men’s. But it has now become clear that a big brain is not necessarily associated with superior intelligence. Fortunately, gender stereotypes have changed a lot and today most people agree that both sexes are equally intelligent.

But the image that people have of their own intelligence is subject to several cognitive biases. One is based on the above-average effect, a natural cognitive bias that applies to the set of features considered socially desirable where individuals tend to consider themselves better than average. Another bias is associated with self-esteem: someone with high self-esteem tends to see themselves as brighter and more capable than someone with low self-esteem. Self-esteem in the female sex is generally lower than in the male sex, a difference appearing at the beginning of adolescence which, take note of the specialist.

Certain environmental factors, such as parental beliefs (which are then passed on to offspring) are also likely to fuel gender bias. In a study conducted in 800, a sober British mom and dad sample were big t asked to estimate their IQ and that sober their children: unsurprisingly, the men had their IQ increased by relationship to the women; but this study also showed that both sexes felt their sons were smarter than their daughters! This is a particularly essential stage, since the respect that parents have for their children can clearly influence their schooling. Parental educational expectations can influence the child’s understanding of his own abilities, explain the authors of the study.

An overestimation also guided by psychological sex

In the sober context of this study, 259 individuals (62 men, 200 women), sober gs 20 ,22 average sober years old, have testosterone levels recruited from a group of university students. They first estimated their own IQ via a booklet containing self-assessment measures of intelligence, then moved the Cattell Cultural Good IQ Check (CCFIT) a check designed to measure cognitive abilities free of socio-cultural and environmental influences. The students logged an IQ of 100,22 factors on average, i.e. a rating slightly above the average, as expected, specifies Reilly.

IQ self-assessment

Diagramme de dispersion de la relation entre le QI auto-estim et le QI rel, par sexe (la ligne bleue reprsente les hommes, la verte reprsente les femmes). D. Reilly et al.

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Sober scatter diagram of the relationship between self-estimated IQ and real IQ, by sex (a blue line represents the men, a green one represents women). M. Reilly et al.

After the check, participants completed a survey measuring sober self-esteem, as well as the Bem Intercourse Role Supply (BSRI), which measures sober male and female personality characteristics. who. We found that the strongest predictors of overestimated IQ were biological sex, followed by psychological sex. The fact of being a man and having strong masculine qualities was associated with an inflated intellectual self-image, summarizes Reilly. This is the first study to include the psychological type which, revealing that women with a high BSRI masculinity rating tend to think they are smarter than they actually are, just like men.

This study confirms a common phenomenon: a society often teaches men to be overconfident, even when this belief is absolutely wrong. This has important implications, which are unfortunately still topical, such as the sober pay gap between male and female workers, or the sober career choice of women, which are still under-represented today in scientific divisions, for example.

20600Supply:Chemical. Reilly et al., Frontiers in Psychology